A kernel error is an error in a critical code for Windows. If you have already encountered a blue screen of death (BSoD), then you have seen a kernel error. Windows is actually several layers of programs designed to work together. You can think of Windows as if it were your body, with many pieces working together to form a whole, and like your body, some parts of Windows are more important than others.
The kernel is the most important part of Windows. It includes critical programs for managing things like memory management and device drivers for the graphics card. These programs are like the heart and brain of a body. If something falls into the kernel, it will often cause the Windows crash.
Because there are a lot of programs in the kernel, there are many opportunities for bugs to appear. Although Microsoft performs extensive testing to get rid of bugs, their test installations can not run any combinations that billions of computers use with Windows when certain bugs occur.
However, most kernel failures involve device drivers. who make hardware, not by Microsoft. Your graphics card, for example, probably uses a driver created by the video company. These companies often work with Microsoft to test their drivers, but working together adds an extra layer of complexity.
A hardware failure can cause a kernel error. If your graphics card fails, it may send erroneous data to the graphics device driver, which then hangs, which creates a kernel error. If your hard drive fails, it can corrupt files used by Windows and crash programs that use these files.
Registry failures can cause kernel errors. The registry is an information database that Windows uses to store information about programs. If the registry is corrupted, the programs that use it may cause kernel errors.
Registry corruption can come from software or hardware failures. Software corruption can come from a bug in one of the programs that writes information into the registry. Or if you shut down your computer without performing a complete shutdown, the registry files may not be completely written to disk. Hardware corruption can occur when the hard drive fails and some parts of the registry files are lost. It's a good idea to do some research on kernel errors and other registry issues.