The religious beliefs of the ancient Egyptians were the dominant influence in the development of their culture. Egyptian faith was based on a collection of ancient myths, adoration of nature and innumerable deities. Sumerian lives were spent serving the gods in the form of artificial statues. There was no organized group of gods; each city-state had its patrons, temples and kings-priests. The Sumerians were probably the first to write their beliefs, which inspired much of the later Mesopotamian mythology, religion, and astrology. The Sumerians believed that the universe consisted of a flat disk enclosed in a tin dome. While the Mesopotamians had nothing to do with the pyramids, they used and built ziggurats for religious purposes.
Both civilizations were centered on religion. Egypt believed in many gods. The gods of Mesopotamia believed to be absolute leaders to whom the people owed a total devotion. In both civilizations, religious leaders received a very high status and were highly respected. Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt are two religions that believed in monotheism. Egypt and Mesopotamia were both polytheistic, that is to say, that they believed that their worlds were ruled by more than one god. Both civilizations believed that the gods had created them. Both cultures also believed that they were created to serve their gods. The two worshipers took their names from the many gods and cults that honored the deities, and the priests of both religions were not special garments and made daily offerings in the temples and held annual festivals open to the public. the servants of the gods, who were to be appeased for protection. The Egyptians believed that the gods created all humans, but they were also controlled by the principle of maat or order. Unlike the followers of the Mesopotamian religion, the Egyptians firmly believed in life after death, which they expressed by building elaborate tombs such as the pyramids. The Sumerian nightlife involved a descent into a dark underworld to spend eternity in a miserable existence as a Gidim (ghost). The Egyptians believed that their gods had created Egypt as a sort of refuge of goodness and order in a world full of chaos and disorder. The major god of Mesopotamia was the god of heaven Enlil; Later, the worship of Enlil was replaced by the worship of the Babylonian god Marduk. For the Egyptians, Amen-Ra was the most powerful deity, leader of the pantheon. The statues of winged bulls were a protective symbol related to the god Sin Mesopotamia, while the ankh, a kind of cross with a loop at the top, was an important representation of life in ancient Egypt. The Enuma Elish tells the story of Mesopotamian creation and explains how Marduk became the leader of the gods. The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a guide for the dead, spelling out magic spells and charms for use in judging the afterlife. The ancient Nippur was the site of the main temple of Enlil, while Babylon was the location of the Marduk shrine. Thebes and the Karnak temple complex housed the cult of Aman-Ra. In the modern world, one can see the remains of these early religions in the pyramids of Egypt, the tombs of the pharaohs and in the ziggurats of Mesopotamia, the temples of the gods. The New Year festival was a major event in the Mesopotamian religion, while the most important festival of Egypt was Opet. As Egypt is the "gift of the Nile" and generally prosperous and harmonious, the Egyptian gods tended to reflect a positive religion emphasizing a positive life after death. In contrast, the Mesopotamian religion was dark and dark. The ancient Mesopotamian prayers demonstrate the lack of relationships with gods and goddesses who regarded humans with suspicion and frequently sent calamities to remind everyone of their humanity. This was the message found in the epic of Gilgamesh.
Although the religions of both civilizations have many similarities, the differences were vast. The most notable are the importance and belief of the afterlife and the relationship between the gods. Because of these differences, we believe that civilizations were different because in the early days, civilizations revolved around their beliefs and values, but unfortunately these great civilizations ended.