History of Educational Technology

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No written evidence can tell us exactly who coined the phrase "technology education". Different educators, scientists and philosophers, at different times, have proposed different definitions of educational technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices and an organization, where technology from different scientific fields is borrowed according to the needs and training requirements to implement, evaluate and manage solutions to problems all aspects of human learning.

In general, the technology of education has gone through five stages .

The first stage of educational technology is associated with the use of model aids, specimens and concrete materials. The term "educational technology" has been used as synonymous with audiovisual aids.

The second stage of education technology is associated with the "electronic revolution" with the introduction and introduction of sophisticated hardware and software. The use of various audiovisual media such as a projector, magic lanterns, a tape recorder, radio and television have brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. As a result, the concept of educational technology has been used in terms of sophisticated instruments and equipment for effective presentation of instructional materials.

The third stage of educational technology is related to the development of the media that has ends. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since the 1950s also became popular at that time.

The process of individualized instruction discerns the fourth stage of educational technology. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction has given a new dimension to educational technology. A self-learning system based on self-learning materials and teaching machines has emerged.

The most recent concept of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or systemic approach focused on language labs, machinery technologies and the use of technology. computer in the classroom. In her view, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, executing and evaluating the overall teaching and learning process in terms of specific research-based objectives.

Educational Technology in the Stone Age and the Iron Age

Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to Period of periodization of the three-age system of human prehistory; namely the stone age, the age of bronze and the age of iron.

During the Stone Age, the ignition of fire by rubbed stones, the manufacture of various weapons. A fraction of Stone Age dwellers developed a pendulum canoe technology capable of migrating from one place to another across the ocean, through which they developed their first Informal education on ocean currents, weather conditions, practice of navigation Plans. During the last period of stone age (Neolithic period), polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks, mainly by digging underground tunnels. The polished axes were so effective that even after the appearance of bronze and iron; people used it to clear the forest and establish crops.

Although Stone Age cultures left no written record, archaeological evidence has proven their passage from nomadic life to agricultural colonization. Ancient tools preserved in different museums, rock paintings like the Altamira cave in Spain and other prehistoric works, such as the Venus of Willendorf, the Mother Goddess of Laussel, etc., are evidence of their cultures.

The stone age revolution brought about the appearance of the Bronze Age with the development of agriculture, the domestication of animals and the adoption of colonies permanent. For these practices, people of the Bronze Age have developed the fusion of metals, with copper and bronze, an alloy of tin and copper.

People of the Iron Age replaced the bronze and the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before writing development.

Educational Technology in the Time of Ancient Civilizations

According to Paul Saettler, 2004, educational technology dates back to the time when tribal priests systematized sets of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictograms or scripts to record and transmit information. At each stage of human civilization, one can find a pedagogical technique or set of procedures to implement a particular culture, which was also based on the number of investigations and evidence. The more advanced the culture, the more educational technology designed to reflect particular individual and social behaviors to manage an educated society became complex. Over the centuries, every significant change in the values, goals or objectives of teaching has led to various teaching technologies. This progress has encouraged and educated other societies around the world to adopt new ways of life and governance.

The civilization of the Indus Valley was a Bronze Age civilization located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Civilization has mainly developed around the Indus Basin of the Indus and Punjab region, extending up to the valley of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and the Ganga-Yamuna Doab (most of it is today in Pakistan and the western states). India, as well as part of the civilization extending to the south-east of Afghanistan and the easternmost part of Baluchistan, Iran.

There is a long controversy about the language spoken by Harappan. It is assumed that their writing seems to be at least a pictographic script. The script seems to have had about 400 basic signs, with a lot of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from right to left. Most of the writings were found on seals and seals that were probably used in commerce and in official and administrative work.

The Harappan knew the tools for measuring length, mass and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.

In a study by P. N. Rao et al. In 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script model is closer to that of spoken words, which corroborates the proposed hypothesis that it codes for a language still unknown.

Among the main techno offerings of China are paper, the first seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, plow, multi-tube seeder, suspension bridge, wheelbarrow, parachute, map relief, blast furnace, propeller, crossbow, south pointing tank and gunpowder. With the invention of paper, they took their first steps towards the development of educational technology by growing more handmade paper products as a means of visual aid.

The ancient Egyptian language was at one time the longest world. Their script was composed of images of real things like birds, animals, different tools, and so on. These images are called hieroglyphs. Their language was composed of more than 500 hieroglyphs called hieroglyphs. On stone monuments or tombs discovered and saved, there is evidence of the existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphs in ancient Egypt.

Educational technology in the medieval and modern era

that was developed in China in the early 2nd century AD, was transported to the Middle East and spread to Mediterranean by Muslim conquests. Evidence argues that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of the spinning wheel greatly increased the productivity of the net manufacturing process and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel to a growing number of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, a key factor in the development of the technology. 39; printing.

The invention of the printing press took place around 1450, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of the printing press has been one of the major development factors in the history of educational technology to transmit instruction in accordance with the needs of the complex and technologically advanced society.

At the level of the artisan, the instructional processes were heavily based on simple things like slate, horn book, blackboard and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with some illustrations. Educational technology was seen as synonymous with simple aids such as pictures and pictures.

The year 1873 can be considered as a milestone in the history of the technologies of the education or the audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at the international level, during which an American school aroused the admiration of educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, manuals and other equipment.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), educator The designer of the Montessori method had a dynamic impact on educational technology by developing scoring materials designed to allow the proper sequencing of the material for each learner. Modern educational technology suggests an extension of Montessori's idea of ​​a child-centered prepared environment. by International Business Machines Corporation in the United States. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in which the computer essentially functions as a tutor and as a talking-type editor was developed by OK Moore in 1966. Since 1974, it is interesting to note that computers are used in schools, colleges and universities.

In the early nineteenth century, the field of education has undergone significant changes. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), from its beginnings in school broadcasts in 1920, had maintained a rapid pace in its contribution to formal education. In the United States, in 1952, 20 states had planned educational broadcasting. At the same time, about 98% of UK schools were equipped with radios and regular daily programs.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist from Ohio State University, developed a 1920s self-learning machine. Professor Skinner, in his famous article "Science of Learning and of the "art of teaching" published in 1945, advocates for the application of knowledge from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggests automated teaching devices. [19659002] Although the first practical use of regular television programs took place in Berlin in 1929 and 1936 in Berlin by television channels, open-circuit television was used mainly for the broadcasting of entertainment programs. television is used for educational purposes.

In 1950, Brynmor, England, used educational techniques for the first time. One must worry about the fact that in 1960, as a result of the industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also began to make progress in the field of educational technology. In this way, the beginning of educational technology took place in 1960 in America and Russia and reached England, Europe and India.

By the 1950s, the new technocracy was drawing attention to education. A sharp shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need for educational technology have been felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard, introduced Mass Production Technology to America.

Team teaching was born in America in the mid-1950s and began in 1955 at Harvard University as part of the internship plan.

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom of the United States introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives in his publication entitled "The Taxonomy of Educational Goals, Classification of Educational Goals, Manual I".

In 1961, Dwight W. Allen and his collaborators at Stanford University in the United States adopted for the first time a micro-teaching technique.

Electronics is the main technology developed in the early 21st century. Broadband Internet access has become popular and occupied almost all the important educational offices and places and even the common places of developed countries, with the advantage of connecting personal computers with music libraries and mobile phones. .

a room with rows of students using laptops connected to the Internet or Wi-Fi, handheld computers, a notebook or perhaps a video conference room or a virtual classroom. Rapid technological changes in the field of education have created new ways of teaching and learning. Technological change has also encouraged teachers to access a variety of information globally through the Internet, to improve their lessons and to make them competent professionals in their field. At the same time, students can use vast Internet resources to enrich their learning experience to cope with new trends in society. Today, students and teachers also attend seminars, conferences, workshops at the national and international level using multimedia technology resources such as PowerPoint and even they follow a variety of important courses in distance mode via online learning methods. The online learning center has opened an endless number of opportunities for learners today to make their lives happier than ever before.

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Source by Sanjoy Deka

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