Gothic Revival and Romantic Movements, legacies of the late Victorian era, have diverted the design and architecture towards emotivity and individuality, far from rationality embraced by the previous Georgian period. At the same time, it gives birth to the art nouveau style of the carefully laid-back creativity that has been associated with the following Edwardian period. All of these brave antique Victorian tiles are the most famous looks reflecting geometry and mosaic as well as floral motifs. The same styles can be obtained today from big names in the exterior and interior tiles, including Dal Tile, 3M and Trident.
Tessellation is essential to achieve the classic appearance of Victorian floor tiles. It reflects the creation of tiles in repeated forms that meet without overlap or omission, just like puzzle pieces. Octagonal and hexagonal styles were popular among mosaic tiles with mosaic or geometric patterns. The non abstract work of the Dutch artist MC Escher would inspire tessellation in flowers or animals much later. Due to the arrival of the print, the transfer prints were prevalent as much as the classic Victorian blue and white color scheme. The orange and the red were just as fashionable, boosted by the popularity of the majestic faience called majolica.
Although typically constricting, the entrances and vestibules in English and English homes in Somerset were proudly adorned with tiling enhanced by heavy lighting, curtains and furniture. Door hardware and knockers were cast iron, bronze or brass. Tiles were built of ceramic, stone, porcelain or granite in unglazed cement grout except for chimneys. At present, Victorian tiles can also use vitreous clay, glass, travertine, limestone, slate, marble, sandstone and quarry. The finishes can be textured, terracotta, satin, matte, glossy, glass and encaustic. The Arts & Crafts movement was another major influence, as were the Persian, Japanese and Oriental arts after Britain had authorized world trade in the 1860s.
Queen Victoria ruled Great Britain and Ireland with moral suffocation from 1830 to 1901 but creativity has surfaced elsewhere. The Gothic revival married the architecture of the medieval church from the 12th to the 16th century on the repressed sophistication of Georgian neoclassicism. The geometric motifs used in medieval cathedrals were specially adapted by romanticism for Victorian floor tiles and architecture as a whole as it advocated subjective art, often with dramatic effect. The Edwardian art nouveau innovated the Victorian geometric and mosaic style but also moved away with an emphasis on softer tones and fluid figures. Colonial houses from before the war until the 1920s and 1930s would revive Victorian models and contemporary homes did the same today.