T-shirts – Common terms explained


T-shirt manufacturers use many terms to describe their products. The terms are not always consistent and this helps to have a reference guide.

The following is the official guide for the Green Man T-Shirts to understand the t-shirt terms:

20s, 20/1, 20s single: Measurement unit that defines fineness cotton thread. A standard reel of one-ply cotton yarn includes 840 yards of cotton yarn. If it takes 20 reels to weigh a pound, the thread of these reels is called cotton 20s or 20/1. If 30 reels weigh one pound, the yarn of these reels is called cotton yarn 30s or 30/1. If it takes 40 reels to weigh a pound, then the yarn on these reels is called 40s cotton, or 40/1. The higher number means a thinner thread, and therefore a finer and softer fabric is created. T-shirts from the '30s and' 40s are softer, thinner and have better drape than 20-year-old t-shirts. Terms are used in many ways, but that's the number that counts; "20s", "20/1" and "20 singles" are the same. The threads can be twisted together into thicker threads. If two 20/1 cotton yarns were twisted together, we would talk about 20/2

Bamboo fabric: Ray made from bamboo cellulose. Although rayon is an artificial synthetic material, most experts agree that it is easily biodegradable. The bamboo fabric is extremely soft and has an excellent drape.

Bamboo: A fast growing plant, classified as grass, which can be easily transformed into rayon to make bamboo rayon clothing.

Wash: A process that uses bleach to soften and de-stress the appearance of the washed fabric.

Boat Neck: A very wide neckline that runs through the clavicular area up to the shoulder points. Drift of the early sailors shirts, where the wide neck allowed fast movement if the sailor fell to the sea.

Boy Beater: The woman's fashion meets the woman's drummer. A women's tank top, although it can be of any color.

Brushed Cotton: A method for removing lint and excess fiber from the cotton fabric. Brushed cotton usually has a very soft and smooth finish.

Burn-Out: Process using sulfuric acid or other strong acid to "burn" parts of a knit fabric, usually a polyester / cotton blend. The process gives a transparent, very pure effect.

Cap Sleeves: Generally refers to short sleeves on women's clothing.

Carbon dioxide: CO2. A chemical compound composed of two atoms of oxygen and a carbon atom. Known as a "greenhouse gas" because of its relationship to global warming. Some t-shirt manufacturers are currently measuring and recording CO2 emissions from their shirts

Carbon Trust: An independent organization established in Britain in 2001 to monitor carbon emissions. The Carbon Trust works with companies to help reduce their carbon footprint, and now certifies that companies and products have a "low carbon" or "carbon-free" carbon footprint. Some t-shirt manufacturers now make "reduced carbon footprint" t-shirts

Carding: A fiber cleaning process that removes short fibers and removes dirt and foreign matter. Carding can be done by hand or by large machines using drum rollers. Carded cotton only is not as desirable as combed cotton.

Cellulase Wash: Another name for enzymatic washing. This gives the fabric a soft feel and a vintage look, depending on how the wash is done.

Cellulose: Derived from the cell walls of certain plants. Useful in the manufacture of certain types of fabrics, including acetate, triacetate and rayon. The bamboo fabric is actually rayon made of bamboo cellulose.

Cheap Cotton T-Shirt: T-shirts made with carded cotton, using 18/1 yarn, usually knitted on 20 gauge machines. These tees are coarse, rough and have a poor drape. Used often as cheap promotional gifts.

Climate Neutral: Term used to describe a business, process or product that has no impact on the Earth's climate. Some t-shirt manufacturers announce that their business is climate neutral

CO2: Carbon dioxide. A chemical compound composed of two atoms of oxygen and a carbon atom. Known as a "greenhouse gas" because of its relationship to global warming.

Color fastness: The ability of a garment to withstand multiple washes without losing its color.

A method for removing short fibers and arranging longer fibers in parallel to create a smooth, fine cotton yarn. Combed cotton has high strength, excellent uniformity and a better hand. Combed cotton is more expensive and is used in thinner t-shirts

Compaction: A process that compactes the space between pockets of cotton fiber. Helps reduce shrinkage.

Contrasting stitching: Sewing with a color different from that of the garment. Give a nice design detail in t-shirts.

Control Union: An international organization that provides certification services for a variety of programs – including many organic certification programs. Certified USDA Organic, as well as GOTS (Global Organic Textile Standard).

Cotton Jersey: Knit fabric, very slightly stretchy with a flat, smooth face and a more textured but uniform back. The average weight per yard is about 5.5 to 6 ounces. The basic t-shirts are made of cotton jersey. Fine cotton jersey is generally smoother and has a lighter weight per yard.

Cotton: A natural fiber that is the most popular in the world for fabrics. Cotton fibers are typically ½ to 2 inches in length. Longer fibers produce a thinner cotton fabric. Varieties such as Pima and Egyptian, which have fibers larger than 1.5 inches, are more popular than ordinary varieties.

Crew Neck: A rounded neckline. The most common neck on t-shirts

Crop Top: A shirt with a short body;

Double Needle Punch: Used primarily on sleeve and bottom hems and refers to a parallel row of stitching. This type of seam provides durability and a cleaner, thinner look.

Drape, Drapability: Refers to how a fabric hangs. A fabric like bamboo rayon has an excellent drape, while a coarse cloth like burlap has very little. T-shirts that have good draping qualities are more comfortable to wear.

Drop Tail: A garment with a longer back than the front.

Eco-Friendly: Extremely loose term that refers to the "greenness" of a product. Almost useless in the realistic evaluation of a product. Favorite term used by green washers.

Egyptian Cotton: Cotton produced in Egypt and valued for its fiber length. Clothes made with real Egyptian cotton are sought after for their softness and finesse.

Environmental Justice Foundation: A registered charity established in 2000 to help those who suffer the most from environmental abuse: pesticide poisoning, water depletion, and soil destruction . Particularly active in the fight against abuses in cotton growing.

Enzyme Washed: A washing process using special enzymes to produce a smooth finish and a smooth appearance on a fabric. Ages dyes to create a special look for dyed fabrics. Enzyme washing is physically less hard on the fabric compared to stone washing.

European Cut: A narrower t-shirt style than the one normally found. For example, a large-size men's t-shirt is typically 22 inches wide on the chest (measured one inch below the sleeve). The European cut of a man will be closer from half an inch to an inch, sometimes more.

Fabric dyed: Fabric dyed before being cut and sewn into a finished garment.

Fair Labor Association: A non-profit organization dedicated to ending sweatshop conditions in factories around the world. Works to develop a code of work practices, particularly important in the garment sector where working conditions have always been so poor.

Fair Wear Foundation: An international group dedicated to improving the lives of garment workers around the world. Works with companies that produce clothing and other products sewn and take responsibility for their supply chain.

Fine cotton jersey: Knit fabric, very slightly stretchy with a smooth face and a more textured back. Fine cotton jersey is generally smoother and lighter weight per meter than regular cotton jersey. T-shirts in fine cotton jersey have better drape and feel than regular t-shirts. Usually made with cotton yarn 30s and over, and weighs around 4.3 ounces per square yard.

Fitted cut: Definitions vary, but generally a fitted cut refers to a cut that flatters the body. Often used in women's t-shirts, the central part of the shirt will be tighter than the top or bottom. Overall, the shirts are narrower than a full basic cut

Full Cut: A generous and spacious cut. In t-shirts, tubular styles are generally considered cut, but there are exceptions. Full Cut differs from European cuts, slender cuts and slimmer trim cuts.

Garment Dyed: Clothing dyed after being cut and sewn into a finished garment.

Washed Clothes: A process where finished articles of clothing are washed, usually with added softeners to enhance the feel and appearance of the fabric.

OGM Free: GMO stands for Genetically Modified Organisms. First used in the 1990s when consumers worried about genetically modified foods. Many companies now apply GMO-free etiquette on everything from food to natural fabrics, like cotton.

GOTS: Means Global Organic Textile Standard. A project of the international working group. They have developed standards to ensure the organic status of textiles, from harvesting, manufacturing and labeling, to provide credible assurance to the end consumer. An organic T-shirt that meets the standards can be certified GOTS

Green: Generic term used by marketing gurus to promote products. Another favorite term of "green washers", who jump on the environment train without real commitment.

Green-Washing: Takeoff on the term "white-washing", but in context context. Companies who wash greens respect environmental concerns to attract more businesses, but have taken no real action to be environmentally responsible.

Hand: The way a fabric is sensitive to touch. A soft, smooth fabric is considered to have a good hand.

Hemp Fabric: Hemp, or Cannabis sativa, has been used as a fabric for thousands of years, primarily as an industrial fabric. New methods of treatment have made it suitable for thinner clothes, and now it is used in many items of clothing, including t-shirts. Hemp is appreciated for its strength and durability.

Henley T-Shirt: Similar to a collarless polo shirt, a Henley is a sweater t-shirt with 2 or 3 buttons (sometimes up to 5 buttons are used, but this is not a good idea). is rare). A Henley can be short-sleeved or long-sleeved

Ice Wash: A stone washing method where the stones are first soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate. This method gives a frosted appearance to the fabric.

Interlock Knit: A type of knit that is very soft and has a good drape. Interlock mesh stitches are tighter, more stretchy than knit jersey, but less stretchy than ribbed knit. Used in very fine clothes.

Jersey Knit: Commonly found in t-shirts and is the most durable knitwear. It is light and has fine vertical ribs. The Jersey knit has been named after the British island in the English Channel. Fine cotton jersey refers to Jersey Knit made with fine cotton yarns such as the '30s and' 40s.

Knit: Defines how the interlaced yarn loops that make up the fabric were made. There are several types of knits. Jersey Knit is usually found in t-shirts and is the most durable knitwear. It is light and has fine vertical ribs. On the other hand, ribbed knits have heavy ribs that descend to the fabric, while interlock knits are used in very fine fabrics. T-shirt necklaces are usually ribbed.

Muscle Shirt: Sleeveless t-shirt, but not exactly a tank top. Basic T-shirt, just without the sleeves. The part of the shoulder strap is much wider than that of an ordinary tank top.

Neck Tape: A thin strip of fabric sewn on the seam that crosses the shoulders and neck. It covers the seam and looks better than an exposed point. Often referred to as shoulder to shoulder.

OekoTek 100: Certification of the Oeko-Tex® International Association, which assures consumers that the clothes they buy are chemical-free and pose no risk to their health . health. According to the Oeko-Tex standard, clothing should be free of formaldehyde, arsenic, lead, cadmium and other toxic chemicals.

Organic Apparel: Very loosely used term in the apparel industry. This can mean anything from 100% organic to as little as 6% organic. Often combined with terms like ecological, green, and so on. Consumers should check the labels and check the materials used to see if something is really organic or not.

Organic cotton: Cotton grown without the use of pesticides. The certified organic cotton has been inspected to make sure it is really organic.

Organic Soil Association: Founded in 1946 by a group of farmers, scientists and nutritionists concerned about the relationship between agricultural and plant, animal, human, and environmental health practices. The Organic Soil Association pioneered the first organic standards in 1967, and certifies farms and businesses that meet these standards.

Overdyed: A process where clothes or fabrics dyed with additional color look unique.

Performance T: Name for t-shirts made for athletes and outdoor enthusiasts. Performance Ts are characterized by their breathability, moisture wicking, fast drying and odor control capabilities. Many performances are polyester / cotton blends, or can also be 100% polyester. Because of their ability to absorb and wick, bamboo t-shirts are known as performance t-shirts, though they do not dry as fast as performance t-shirts. made of 100% polyester.

PFD: Stands ready for dyeing. Sold this way to T-shirt customizers who want to create their own look with dyes.

Pigment Dyed: A type of dye that creates a faded, distressed look.

Pima Cotton: A cotton developed in the United States in the early 1900s to compete with Egyptian cotton. It has longer fibers and is often used in men's and women's shirts. The name Pima comes from the Pima Indians, who helped with the first crops of the new cotton as it was first grown in the United States

Spades: A knitting method that creates a type of waffle, fine textured surface. Used often in polos.

Polyester: Synthetic fiber made from synthetic polymers. Widely used in clothing, especially combined with cotton in 50/50 blends.

Pre-Shrunk: Refers to the pre-removal process of the fabric before it is cut and sewn. Sometimes it refers to a finished garment that has been pre-shrunk. Clothes that have been pre-shrunk shrink less when the buyer washes them. Pre-shrunk cotton t-shirts will shrink a bit again, however, especially if dried using a tumble dryer.

Raglan T-Shirt: T-shirt style with sleeves that run straight to the collar. Usually, the sleeves are a contrasting color of the body. Raglan sleeves are wider under the arms, and are preferred by users who want maximum freedom of movement. Baseball t-shirts generally have a raglan sleeve style

Rayon: Artificial fiber that uses vegetable cellulose as its main ingredient. The rayon is very soft, has an excellent drape and is very absorbent. Originally designed as a substitute for silk.

Rib Knit: Characterized by heavy vertical ribs that descend from the fabric. Rib knits are usually classified as 1×1, 2×1 or 2×2. This allows you to know the width of the rib with respect to the space between the two. For example, a 1×1 ribbed knit or 2×2 ribbed knit means that the space between each rib is the same width as the ribs. But a 2×1 rib knit means that the ribs are twice as wide as the intervening spaces. The ribbed knit is very stretchy and is often used for collars, cuffs and tank tops.

Ring spun: Refers to a thread made by twisting and thinning a rope of cotton fibers. Continuous rotation gives a softer feel and a stronger thread. Ring spun t-shirts are noticeably softer to the touch.

Ringer T: A t-shirt with colorful sleeves and a matching crew neck. Most ringers are white, with cuff sleeves and collars of different colors.

Sand Wash: Used sand to wash clothing or fabric to soften and undress

Satin Washed: Another term for washed silicone, which produces a very smooth and soft finish to the fabric, and also gives the fabric good draping properties.

Scoop Neck: Wide, slightly curved neckline varies in depth. Favored in women's shirts.

Sheer Jersey: Very light jersey knit, weighing about 3.9 ounces per yard. A little more stretchy than the fine jersey.

Ribbon from Shoulder to Shoulder: A thin strip of fabric sewn on the seam that crosses the shoulders and neck. It covers the seam and looks better than an exposed point.

Shrinkage: Usually refers to cotton clothing and the amount that it can expect to shrink. Most cotton t-shirts are pre-shrunk, but one can expect a 4-5% removal.

Side Seamed: Refers to shirts with a seam that descends on each side under the sleeves of the arm. bottom hem. T-shirts with side seams are more expensive to manufacture

Silicone Washed: Refers to the use of inert silicone in a washing process. Produces a very smooth and soft finish to the fabric, and also gives the fabric good draping properties.

Singulet: Another term for a men's tank top.

Slim Cut: A t-shirt style narrower than the one we normally find. For example, a large-size men's t-shirt is typically 22 inches wide on the chest (measured one inch below the sleeve). A thin cut will be narrower from a half inch to an inch, sometimes more.

Stonewashed: A washing process that uses lava stones or sometimes silicone and rubber beads. This method makes the fabric softer and gives it an aged or distressed appearance. Sometimes bleach is used in this process.

Tank top: T-shirt characterized by thin straps and sleeveless. The name comes from the initial term for swimming pools: swimming pools.

Sewn Stitching: No "ribbon" but a thin strip of sewn fabric on the seam that runs across the shoulders and neck of t-shirts It covers the stitching and looks better than "stitch". an exposed point.

Tubular Style: Style that does not have side seams; the body of the t-shirt is round and straight. Tubular t-shirts are cheaper to manufacture, and make up the bulk of cheaper t-shirts.

Unisex T-Shirt: No standard definition exists for a unisex t-shirt, but in general a unisex t-shirt is made of a weight lightweight, fine cotton jersey, side seams, and not as cut like a regular men's t-shirt. The sleeves are not shorter, like the sleeves, but they are also not full elbows. The length of the body is usually medium / long. However, there are big variations in unisex t-shirts, according to the manufacturer.

Uzbekistan: Former satellite of the USSR became independent in 1991 and known for its methods of cotton production, including forced child labor. and destructive practices for the environment. Ethical clothing companies boycott cotton from Uzbekistan; however, many companies do not care and refused to join the boycott because Uzbekistan's cotton is cheap.

V -Neck: Inverted triangle style. Can be deep or shallow, depending on style. Usually favored by women, but a shallow V-neck is popular among men.

Viscose: Typically another name for rayon, as in viscose rayon.

Weight: Usually expressed in ounces per square meter. A cotton fabric of 5.5 ounces of weight means that a square yard will weigh 5.5 ounces. Fine jersey cotton fabrics generally have lighter weight, while coarser cotton fabrics have heavier weights.

Wife Beater: Pejorative term for a men's tank top t-shirt. Usually refers to a basic white tank top.

Dyeing Stain: Dye that is dyed before it is woven into a fabric.


Source by David Urban

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